- in some forms, as snakes and whales, the limbs have been lost or greatly modified over time
- vertebrates are also characterized by a muscular system consisting primarily of bilaterally paired masses and a nervous system partly enclosed within the backbone
- Brave men are all vertebrates; they have their softness on the surface and their toughness in the middle. (G.K. Chesterton)
- Vertebrates originated about 500 million years ago during the Cambrian period.
- vertebrate is derived from Latin vertebratus "jointed, articulated"
- Although the vertebral column is perhaps the most obvious vertebrate feature, it was not present in the first vertebrates, which probably had only a notochord. The vertebrate has a distinct head, with a differentiated tubular brain and three pairs of sense organs (nasal, optic, and otic).
- With the exception of certain rodents, no other vertebrate [except Homo sapiens] habitually destroys members of his own species. (Antony Storr)
« Back to the list of categories