- identifying a new astronomical phenomenon
- the origin, evolution, composition, distance, and motion of all bodies and scattered matter in the universe
- the impact of the invention of the telescope and discovery of the laws of motion and gravity in the 17th century
- The Kitt Peak National Observatory on a 6,900-foot mountain in Arizona; observatories are located at high altitudes because the atmosphere distorts light and electro-magnetic radiation from space
- planetary geology, interplanetary dust, stellar development, galaxy formation, quasars
- astronomy being constrained by inherently being observational rather than an experimental science
- astronomy is from Greek aston 'star' and nomia 'arrangement'
- a cosmosphere depicting the celestial sky
- a Persian astrolabe, Japanese sundial, and a spectroscope with its series of prisms
- the view of the stars from Earth changing remarkably little during the past 10,000 years
- The entranceway of Stonehenge being aligned approximately upon the sunrise at the summer solstice -- possibly making Stonehenge also a complicated computer for predicting solar and lunar eclipses
- The human eye was used as the first astronomical detector. The eye is about one percent efficient at detecting visible light (99% is not detected).
- finding the pole (north) star
- navigating by the stars
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